Swansea University
  1. Williams, C., Alderman, N., & Richards, M (2020). The St Andrew’s – Swansea Neurobehavioural Scale (SASNOS): End-User Experience Survey. Draft Report
  2. Alderman, N., Williams, C., & Wood, R. (2017). When normal scores don’t equate to independence: recalibrating ratings of neurobehavioural disability from the ‘St Andrew’s – Swansea Neurobehavioural Outcome Scale’ to reflect context-dependent support. Brain Injury, 1-12. doi:10.1080/02699052.2017.1406989 
  3. & Measuring Change in Symptoms of Neurobehavioural Disability: Responsiveness of the St Andrew’s-Swansea Neurobehavioural Outcome Scale. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1-12. doi:10.1093/arclin/acx026
  4. Alderman, N., Williams, C., & Wood, R.Ll (2016). Measuring Neurobehavioural Disability Using the SASNOS: Application and New Development. Advances in Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, 16(3), 24-2
  5. Wood, R. Ll., Alderman, N., & Williams, C. (2008). Assessment of neurobehavioural disability: A review of existing measures and recommendations for a comprehensive assessment tool. Brain Injury, 22(12), 905-918. doi:10.1080/0269905080249127
  6. Alderman, N., Wood, R. L., & Williams, C. (2011). The development of the St Andrew’s-Swansea Neurobehavioural Outcome Scale: Validity and reliability of a new measure of neurobehavioural disability and social handicap. Brain injury, 25(1), 83-100. doi: 10.3109/02699052.2010.532849
  7. Wood & McMillan (Eds.). Neurobehavioural Disability and Social Handicap following Traumatic Brain Injury (2nd Edition). Brain, Behaviour and Cognition Series. Psychology Press, Taylor and Francis Group. Released 07/02/2017. (N.B., Williams & Wood – Disorders of Emotional Recognition and Expression, Chapter 3; Alderman, N – Challenging behaviour, Chapter 9).
  8. World Health Organisation. International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF). Available online at: http://www.who.int/classifications/icf/en/
  9. Alderman, N. (2010). Neurobehavioural Rehabilitation, Collaboration and the Development of a New Outcome Measure. National Association of Primary Care Review, Autumn, 90-92.

Other Useful Tools available from members of the SASNOS team: 

In addition to SASNOS, our community of end-users may also wish to consider the following outcome tools:

  1. The Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS)
  2. The St Andrew’s Sexual Behaviour Assessment (SASBA)

Both of these tools are available free of charge upon request. Please contact the SASNOS team for further details.

Useful Links

The Independent Neurorehabilitation Providers Alliance

United Kingdom Rehabilitation Outcome Collaborative.

The Center for Outcome Measurement in Brain Injury.

United Kingdom Acquired Brain Injury Forum.


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